Now I will discuss the failures that can occur at the pre-implementation stage of an IS.
There are 4 factors that cause pre-implementation failures:
1. Lack of reseach, risk management and long-term commitment:
Implementation of an IS is a complex process, therefore failures occur when management and staff have not done any prior research. If this reseach is done, there is less chance of risks like missing deadlines and over-spending the budget. The organisation also needs to be realistic in their time frame and must be prepared to make a long-term commitment to the project.
2. Accepting failures:
When an information system failes the organisation tends to ignore accountability so nobody gets the blame. There is a company in the UK who gets 60% of government contracts but continues to be involved in system failures. Therefore, the tax payers suffer the costs of these failures.
3. Lack of end user satisfaction:
It often happens that the company will make assumptions on behalf of the customer, which are sometimes wrong. The result is a system that is not appropriate for the end user. An example of this is Computerised Physician Order Entry Systems, which turned out to be impractical for use by doctors, nurses etc.
4. Inappropriate use of technology:
Technology is useless without fully trained users and processes in place. When these factors are ready, the system can increase productivitly and profits.